Lying is willfully saying something that one “does not believe to be true.” U.S. Code. What you believe to be true may be untrue. Lying adopts a thousand formats: Hypocrisy and politeness are two; silence is yet another. Parents tell lies to children, nurses to patients, witnesses to juries. Pinnochio lies. Sustaining a lie is more demanding than starting a lie, so even well-prepared lies crumble. Nixon lied and left. “Some earn their living by telling lies.” Nanak. Drongo calls out a false alarm about looming predators to scare away the feeding birds and steals their food. 2+2 = 5 is an error, not a lie. Professional liars defend calculated lies as inadvertent errors. Animal experimentation in medicine is shrouded in secrecy and lies. A relationship in which lies are told loses intimacy. Torture produces lies, as does police coercion. That the truth shall prevail is the logic of naivety. Oxytocin stimulates self-serving lies. Eyes cannot conceal lies, “so eye contact reduces lies.” Pub Med. Will you tell a murderer the whereabouts of his intended victim? Kant would.