FacebookTwitterGoogle+RedditEmail

China Is No Paper Tiger

by DAVID MACARAY

Without much fanfare, and without many people even being aware of it, in 2009, China overtook the U.S. as the world’s leading papermaker.  Moreover, they did it in much the same way that they became the world’s premiere manufacturing beast: with innovative engineering, a solid game plan, a vast reservoir of cheap labor, and massive government subsidies.

In this instance, it’s their “innovative engineering” that boggles the mind.  China has managed to develop a genetically altered hardwood eucalyptus tree (which begins its life in the lab as a tissue sample in a petri dish) that requires only four to six years to reach full height.  That’s roughly one-tenth the time it takes “natural” trees in North America (which, all will agree, are abundant) to reach maturity.  Eucalyptus is a favored furnish in papermaking because of its soft, low-coarse fiber.

Each year Chinese laboratories clone 190 million of these “test-tube” eucalyptus sprigs, which are planted on hundreds of thousands of acres spread over several Chinese provinces.  Wending Huang, Asia Pulp & Paper’s chief forester in China, calls these genetically altered trees, “Yao Mings” (referring to a famous and very tall Chinese basketball player).

Wisconsin is the leading papermaking state in the U.S.  Maine is second.  China can now produce in just three weeks what Wisconsin produces in one year.

But genetically engineered trees aren’t the whole story.  In addition to experimental woodlands, China has established itself as the world’s leading recycler of paper.  Indeed, its recycling, de-inking, re-pulping operation is staggering.  China buys about 54 billion pounds a year of scrap paper and cardboard from all over the world, and uses this recycled material to produce about two-thirds of its paper and cardboard (the cardboard in which it ships its manufactured goods all over the world).

The McClatchy News Service reports that China has 20 mega-sized paper mills spread across the country, and that the automated paper machines in these state-of-the-art facilities are capable of producing sixty miles of glossy publishing-grade paper per hour.  That’s a mile a minute—5,280 feet per minute (fpm) of glossy, high-quality base sheet.  That’s very impressive.

Not to give away any trade secrets here, but Kimberly-Clark’s CW Machine #1, in California, produces a 172-inch wide sheet, at 4,600 fpm, which is a very respectable speed for a “vintage” machine that cranks out paper 24 hours a day, 360 days a year.  But Machine #1’s wadding is used exclusively for facial tissue, bath tissue, and paper towels.  A glossy, “publishing-grade” sheet is a whole other deal.

It should be noted that China is still required to import the overwhelming majority of its virgin timber and processed (chemically treated) pulp.  It gets its timber from all over the world (e.g., Indonesia, Russia, Vietnam, Brazil).  In 2011 alone, it imported 14.5 million tons of it (29 billion pounds), l.6 million tons of which came from the U.S., where sawmills, logging and pulp operations have closed down, leaving timber businesses looking for new customers.

While environmental groups have objected to China’s aggressive demand for wood pulp, claiming that it’s destroying the world’s forests, American companies and Wisconsin politicians have their own reasons to complain.  They accuse the Chinese government of illegally subsidizing the country’s paper mills by “dumping” unfairly priced (too cheap to compete with) paper on the American market.  In the 1970s and early ‘80s, Japan was accused of the same practice with its cars.

According to McClatchey News, “the Washington-based Economic Policy Institute estimates the Chinese government doled out at least $33 billion in subsidies to its paper industry from 2002 to 2009—the period that coincides with its stunning growth. That’s more than $4 billion a year, and the number is growing.”

So what we have are American paper mills being squeezed out not only by foreign competitors but by foreign competitors who are being subsidized by their governments.  It must be nice having a government as your business partner and benefactor.  One of the advantages that immediately comes to mind is that they can continue printing money for you, even after you’ve run out of your own.

Consider the American space program.  What if there had been no NASA—no federal space agency?  What if, instead of NASA, we had half a dozen private companies, financed by private investors, trying to put a man on the moon?  Forget about it.  You wouldn’t even have a space program in 1969 without the government.  Which is why the Chinese government chose to “sponsor” its emerging paper industry.

The third complaint—along with environmental degradation and illegal “dumping”—is reserved for labor unions.  Predictably, paper companies blame the unions for wanting decent wages and benefits.  Attacking working people—those at the very bottom—should come as no surprise.  It’s an example of Newton’s First Law of Fecal Gravitation (i.e., shit rolls downhill).

David Macaray a Los Angeles playwright and author (“It’s Never Been Easy:  Essays on Modern Labor,” 2nd Edition), was a former labor union rep.  He can be reached at dmacaray@earthlink.net 

David Macaray is a playwright and author. His newest book is “Nightshift: 270 Factory Stories.” He can be reached at dmacaray@gmail.com

More articles by:
June 29, 2016
Diana Johnstone
European Unification Divides Europeans: How Forcing People Together Tears Them Apart
Andrew Smolski
To My Less-Evilism Haters: A Rejoinder to Halle and Chomsky
Jeffrey St. Clair
Noam Chomsky, John Halle and Henry the First: a Note on Lesser Evil Voting
David Rosen
Birth-Control Wars: Two Centuries of Struggle
Sheldon Richman
Brexit: What Kind of Dependence Now?
Yves Engler
“Canadian” Corporate Capitalism
Lawrence Davidson
Return to the Gilded Age: Paul Ryan’s Deregulated Dystopia
Priti Gulati Cox
All That Glitters is Feardom: Whatever Happens, Don’t Blame Jill Stein
Franklin Lamb
About the Accusation that Syrian and Russian Troops are Looting Palmyra
Binoy Kampmark
Texas, Abortion and the US Supreme Court
Anhvinh Doanvo
Justice Thomas’s Abortion Dissent Tolerates Discrimination
Victor Grossman
Brexit Pro and Con: the View From Germany
Manuel E. Yepe
Brazil: the Southern Giant Will Have to Fight
Rivera Sun
The Nonviolent History of American Independence
Adjoa Agyeiwaa
Is Western Aid Destroying Nigeria’s Future?
Jesse Jackson
What Clinton Should Learn From Brexit
Mel Gurtov
Is Brexit the End of the World?
June 28, 2016
Jonathan Cook
The Neoliberal Prison: Brexit Hysteria and the Liberal Mind
Paul Street
Bernie, Bakken, and Electoral Delusion: Letting Rich Guys Ruin Iowa and the World
Anthony DiMaggio
Fatally Flawed: the Bi-Partisan Travesty of American Health Care Reform
Mike King
The “Free State of Jones” in Trump’s America: Freedom Beyond White Imagination
Antonis Vradis
Stop Shedding Tears for the EU Monster: Brexit, the View From the Peloponnese
Omar Kassem
The End of the Atlantic Project: Slamming the Brakes on the Neoliberal Order
Binoy Kampmark
Brexit and the Neoliberal Revolt Against Jeremy Corbyn
Doug Johnson Hatlem
Alabama Democratic Primary Proves New York Times’ Nate Cohn Wrong about Exit Polling
Ruth Hopkins
Save Bear Butte: Mecca of the Lakota
Celestino Gusmao
Time to End Impunity for Suharto’’s Crimes in Indonesia and Timor-Leste
Thomas Knapp
SCOTUS: Amply Serving Law Enforcement’s Interests versus Society’s
Manuel E. Yepe
Capitalism is the Opposite of Democracy
Winslow Myers
Up Against the Wall
Chris Ernesto
Bernie’s “Political Revolution” = Vote for Clinton and the Neocons
Stephanie Van Hook
The Time for Silence is Over
Ajamu Nangwaya
Toronto’s Bathhouse Raids: Racialized, Queer Solidarity and Police Violence
June 27, 2016
Robin Hahnel
Brexit: Establishment Freak Out
James Bradley
Omar’s Motive
Gregory Wilpert – Michael Hudson
How Western Military Interventions Shaped the Brexit Vote
Leonard Peltier
41 Years Since Jumping Bull (But 500 Years of Trauma)
Rev. William Alberts
Orlando: the Latest Victim of Radicalizing American Imperialism
Patrick Cockburn
Brexiteers Have Much in Common With Arab Spring Protesters
Franklin Lamb
How 100 Syrians, 200 Russians and 11 Dogs Out-Witted ISIS and Saved Palmyra
John Grant
Omar Mateen: The Answers are All Around Us
Dean Baker
In the Wake of Brexit Will the EU Finally Turn Away From Austerity?
Ralph Nader
The IRS and the Self-Minimization of Congressman Jason Chaffetz
Johan Galtung
Goodbye UK, Goodbye Great Britain: What Next?
Martha Pskowski
Detained in Dilley: Deportation and Asylum in Texas
FacebookTwitterGoogle+RedditEmail