FacebookTwitterGoogle+RedditEmail

Inconvenient Allies

by MARC LEVY

Not for the first time but likely the last a dozen or so senior level Viet Minh and American OSS officers held a public reunion at the Asia Society in New York City in 1997. Among the OSS agents present: Charles Fenn, who contacted Ho Chi Minh to rescue downed Allied pilots and send intelligence and weather reports to the OSS. Henry Prunier, who parachuted into Tan Trao to provide small arms and training and who marched with General Vo Nguyen Giap, later hailed as the architect of America’s defeat in Vietnam. And Frank White, who served under Peter Dewey, possibly the first American killed in Indochina.

Among the Viet Minh: Tran Minh Chau, Head of the Administrative Office of Tan Trao, prior to 1945. Nguyen Chinh, who worked with Tran Minh Chau. Nguyen Kim Hung, commander of the Viet Minh/OSS team that worked together in 1945. And Trieu Duc Quang and Tran Trong Trung, who served under Nguyen Kim Hung.

For the next hour the aging veterans related some of their war experiences to an audience of perhaps one hundred people. Memorable was Frank Tan’s recalling that Ho entrusted to him a letter conveying his dream of American support for Vietnamese independence. But no one ‘important’ would read it. “People said,‘Frank, forget it. Nothing can or will happen.’ Now, perhaps, I would have given the letter to the newspapers, but then I was not up to the task.” Tan nodded and said plaintively. “I have been suffering for fifty years with this.”

Few Americans know that Ho Chi Minh worked hand in hand with the US government. During World War II the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), forerunner of the CIA, operated in southern China and Southeast Asia. After the Japanese invaded the French colony then known as Indochina OSS operatives collected reports from French agents living under loose Japanese rule. After the Japanese took complete control in 1945 they arrested all French citizens, including all OSS contacts.

Around this time a group of Viet Minh (forerunner of the Viet Cong) emerged from the jungle escorting a downed US pilot to safety. The group was led by Ho Chi Minh who for many years had sought Vietnamese independence. Previously, French agents had informed the OSS that Ho was a communist. However the US administration felt the Japanese might move from northern Vietnam into southern China and instructed the OSS to ignore Ho’s leanings. He was too valuable an asset against the Japanese, and his goals dovetailed with the official US strategy: defeat Japan and support, at least in words, Vietnamese independence.

Thereafter the OSS referred to Ho as Agent 19 (code name Lucius) and began training the Viet Minh in combat, providing weapons, explosives, radios, food and money. In return, Ho and the Viet Minh provided the OSS with weather information (there were no satellites), harassed Japanese troops, rescued shot down American flyers and provided intelligence about the Japanese.

At wars end the OSS-Viet Minh alliance faded even though America expressed sympathy for Vietnamese self-rule, in stark contrast to the British and French aim of re-establishing French authority in Indochina. Ho proclaimed complete independence after the Viet Minh led “August Revolution” in 1945 but no country recognized his provisional government. Ho petitioned Truman and the Department of State for support but his letters went unanswered and unacknowledged. Some historians feel the OSS-Viet Minh alliance was a lost opportunity. Actual participants implied that if Washington had listened to Ho  Americas long war in Vietnam might have been avoided.

In 1950 Truman sent the Military Assistance Advisory Group  to Vietnam to supervise the use of $10 million worth of military equipment to support the French against the Viet Minh. However the French military was resistant to MAAG oversight. Four years later, lead by Nguyen Vo Giap, the Viet Minh defeated the French in the battle of Dien Bien Phu. After the 1955 Geneva Accords permanently divided Vietnam in half at the 17th parallel, President Eisenhower sent increased MAAG funding and military advisors to the Diem government  to ensure a noncommunist South Vietnam. The Kennedy administration famously escalated US military aid and advisors (i.e. Special Forces and CIA personnel) to the South, setting in motion America’s long war in South East Asia.

Sometimes called America’s first Vietnam War casualty, Peter Dewey was born in 1916 in Chicago. The son of a Congressman, educated in Switzerland and at Yale, he saw action in World War II; through family connections he joined the OSS shortly thereafter. His arrival in Saigon in August 1945–to arrange for the repatriation and evacuation of U.S. POWs who had been held by the Japanese–angered the French and British, who warned Dewey against his sympathies to Ho and the Viet Minh. In the complex alliances and political turmoil of the day, tensions were further heightened by the Potsdam Conference, where the Allied Chiefs of Staff temporarily partitioned Vietnam at the 16th parallel, the violent August uprising announced by Ho, and provocations by the British and French, which put the Viet Minh on high alert. Dewey communicated his dislike to Washington about the British treatment of the Vietnamese. During the final week of September 1945 the British pressured the OSS to recall Dewey back to Washington.

There are various accounts regarding how Dewey died. This much is certain: Dewey and Major Herbert Bluechel drove to Ton Son Nhut airport in Saigon on the morning of September 26th but Dewey’s flight was delayed. Deciding to drive to a nearby OSS villa Dewey shouted in French as they neared a Viet Minh checkpoint. Because the British had forbidden Dewey to fly the American flag on his jeep, he was likely mistaken for a member of the hated Corps Expéditionnaire Français en Extrême-Orient. When the jeep came under fire Dewey was shot in the head and killed. Bluechel managed to escape to the OSS villa, where a fire fight with the Viet Minh raged for three hours. A rescue team of British Gurkhas arrived after the Viet Minh had retreated, taking Dewey’s body and jeep with them.

Rumors swirled as to who had killed Dewey. The Americans blamed the British Special Operations Executive; the British blamed the Japanese (who had entered a truce on August 26th, a day after mainland Japan’s formal surrender); the French blamed the Viet Minh. Ho Chi Minh sent condolence letters to Dewey’s parents and to President Truman, and ordered a search for Dewey’s body, which was never found. Some scholars believe Ho was insincere and had long manipulated the OSS. Having photos of their agents stand at his side, or posing with US weapons, demonstrated his international stature among the Vietnamese. And failing to see Ho as a Soviet-trained communist ideologue may have led to his emergence as a national leader and ultimately, as an enemy of the United States.

Among those attending the Asia Society meeting was Nancy Dewey Hoppin, the daughter of Peter Dewey, killed when she was an infant. When the floor was finally opened to questions she demanded to know how her father had died. A hush swept over the elegant room. Those on stage were awkwardly silent. Finally, a modest answer was trotted out. But the full truth lay elsewhere.

In 2005 in Saigon, still searching for answers to the fate of her father, Dewey Hoppin spoke with Tran Van Giau, an historian, former secretary of the Viet Nam Communist Party and chairman of the South Viet Nam Resistance Committee. Citing a September 1945 report he received as commander of Viet Minh in South Vietnam, Giau said Viet Minh guerrillas, after attempting to retake Ton Son Nhut airport from the French, retreated to Saigon, set up a check point and fatally machine gunned the misidentified Dewy. After killing him, they stole the jeep and tossed Dewey’s body into a river. Having confirmed that the officer killed was not French, but a member of the OSS, Giau then offered his condolences to the Colonel’s daughter.

Sadly, Dewey’s name does not appear on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C. The Department of Defense has ruled the American war in Vietnam began on November 1, 1955, after the US took over following the French defeat at Dien Bien Phu. Instead, Dewey is listed on the Tablets of the Missing at Manila American Cemetery. In France, a metal plaque inside Bayeux Cathedral bears his name, rank and decorations. The epitaph reads,“Pray for him.”

In Dewey’s last OSS report, written the day before he died, he had concluded: “Cochinchina is burning, the French and British are finished here, and we ought to clear out of Southeast Asia.”

Marc Levy was an infantry medic with the First Cavalry in Vietnam and Cambodia in 1970. Website: Medicinthegreentime.com Email: silverspartan@gmail.com

 

Clearance Sale of Vintage
CounterPunch T-Shirts!

We’ve marked down some of CounterPunch’s most popular t-shirts to only $8.00,including the CP shirt featuring Alexander Cockburn’s own scrawl.


Marc Levy was an infantry medic with Delta Company, 1st Battalion 7th Cavalry, First Cavalry Division in Vietnam and Cambodia in 1970. He was decorated three times and court martialed twice. His website is Medic in the Green Time.

More articles by:
Weekend Edition
June 24, 2016
Friday - Sunday
John Pilger
A Blow for Peace and Democracy: Why the British Said No to Europe
Pepe Escobar
Goodbye to All That: Why the UK Left the EU
Michael Hudson
Revolts of the Debtors: From Socrates to Ibn Khaldun
Andrew Levine
Summer Spectaculars: Prelude to a Tea Party?
Kshama Sawant
Beyond Bernie: Still Not With Her
Mike Whitney
¡Basta Ya, Brussels! British Voters Reject EU Corporate Slavestate
Tariq Ali
Panic in the House: Brexit as Revolt Against the Political Establishment
Paul Street
Miranda, Obama, and Hamilton: an Orwellian Ménage à Trois for the Neoliberal Age
Ellen Brown
The War on Weed is Winding Down, But Will Monsanto Emerge the Winner?
Gary Leupp
Why God Created the Two-Party System
Conn Hallinan
Brexit Vote: a Very British Affair (But Spain May Rock the Continent)
Ruth Fowler
England, My England
Jeffrey St. Clair
Lines Written on the Occasion of Bernie Sanders’ Announcement of His Intention to Vote for Hillary Clinton
Norman Pollack
Fissures in World Capitalism: the British Vote
Paul Bentley
Mercenary Logic: 12 Dead in Kabul
Binoy Kampmark
Parting Is Such Sweet Joy: Brexit Prevails!
Elliot Sperber
Show Me Your Papers: Supreme Court Legalizes Arbitrary Searches
Jan Oberg
The Brexit Shock: Now It’s All Up in the Air
Nauman Sadiq
Brexit: a Victory for Britain’s Working Class
Brian Cloughley
Murder by Drone: Killing Taxi Drivers in the Name of Freedom
Ramzy Baroud
How Israel Uses Water as a Weapon of War
Brad Evans – Henry Giroux
The Violence of Forgetting
Ben Debney
Homophobia and the Conservative Victim Complex
Margaret Kimberley
The Orlando Massacre and US Foreign Policy
David Rosen
Americans Work Too Long for Too Little
Murray Dobbin
Do We Really Want a War With Russia?
Kathy Kelly
What’s at Stake
Louis Yako
I Have Nothing “Newsworthy” to Report this Week
Pete Dolack
Killing Ourselves With Technology
David Krieger
The 10 Worst Acts of the Nuclear Age
Lamont Lilly
Movement for Black Lives Yields New Targets of the State
Martha Rosenberg
A Hated Industry Fights Back
Robert Fantina
Hillary, Gloria and Jill: a Brief Look at Alternatives
Chris Doyle
No Fireworks: Bicentennial Summer and the Decline of American Ideals
Michael Doliner
Beyond Dangerous: the Politics of Climate
Colin Todhunter
Modi, Monsanto, Bayer and Cargill: Doing Business or Corporate Imperialism?
Steve Church
Brexit: a Rush for the Exits!
Matthew Koehler
Mega Corporation Gobbles Up Slightly Less-Mega Corporation; Chops Jobs to Increase Profits; Blames Enviros. Film at 11.
David Green
Rape Culture, The Hunting Ground, and Amy Goodman: a Critical Perspective
Ed Kemmick
Truckin’: Pro Driver Dispenses Wisdom, Rules of the Road
Alessandro Bianchi
“China Will React if Provoked Again: You Risk the War”: Interview with Andre Vltchek
Christy Rodgers
Biophilia as Extreme Sport
Missy Comley Beattie
At Liberty
Ron Jacobs
Is Everything Permitted?
Cesar Chelala
The Sad Truth About Messi
FacebookTwitterGoogle+RedditEmail